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The statements below express the main ideas of the text. Number them so that they are in the same order as the ideas in the text. The first one is given for you:

Statement Order
a. An individual income tax is a tax on a person’s income.
b. A consumption tax is levied on sales of goods and services.
c. Payroll taxes are the main sources of funding for social programmes.
d. Governments impose many types of taxes.
e. Tariffs are taxes on imported or exported goods.
f. Gifts to charitable organi­zations,schools, churches, government bodies, are Text organization. tax- exempt.

8Viewpoint:

Do you think it is fair to impose a tax on gifts?

13.FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

Lead-in: Discuss in pairs if foreign investments are favourable for our country. Key words and phrases 1. portfolio investments –портфельні iнвестицiї 2. stocks and bonds –акцiї та облігації 3. direct investment –пряме інвестування 4. to transfer capital –перевести капітал 5. to gain equity –здобувати власний капітал 6. return on investments –прибуток з інвестицій 7. interest rate –процентна ставка 8. assets –актив, засоби

Foreign direct investment may be divided into two components: portfolio investment, which is the purchase of stocks and bonds, and direct investment, by which the investors participate in Text organization. the management of the firm in addition to receiving a return on their money.

Foreign direct investment (FDI) is a complex form of international business. It involves ownership and control of a company in a foreign country by an organization based in another country.

Contrary to portfolio investments, foreign direct investments mean a long-term commitment where capital funds will be tied up for a long time.

Although a direct investment usually is required by transferring capital from one country to another, capital is not the only contribution made by the investor or the only means of gaining equity. The investment Text organization. firm may supply technology, personnel and markets in exchange for an investment for an interest in a firm located abroad.

Companies engage in direct investment abroad for the same reasons they pursue international trade:

1. To expand markets by selling abroad.

2. To acquire foreign resources (e.g. raw materials, production efficiency and knowledge)

Financial considerations are also the most important and sometimes decisive factors. What is the expected return on an investment? What are interest rates? What are the sources of working capital?

When governments are involved in direct investment, an additional motive may be to attain Text organization. some political advantage.

One more explanation for a direct investment is that investors perceive a monopoly advantage over similar companies in the countries to which they go. The advantage is due to the ownership of some resource that is unavailable at the same price or terms to the local firm. The resource may be in the form of assetsto markets, patents, management skills, or the like.

In many countries there is resistance to foreign direct investment.

Some strategic industries (such as food, computers, nuclear reactors and energy) will find it increasingly difficult to expand abroad. But direct investment is likely to Text organization. continue its course in many areas. The economic integration of the US, Europe and Japan will stimulate its development. Because of the greater costs of transferring resources abroad and the greater risk of operating in a different environment, the firm will not move unless it expects a higher return than at home.

ØComprehension:

1. Name two components of foreign direct investment.

2. What is the main difference between portfolio investments and direct investment?

3. Say if the following statement is true or false according to the text: “Financial considerations are one of the most important reasons for investors”.

4. Do investors perceive a monopoly Text organization. advantage over similar companies in the countries they go to?

5. Why is there resistance to foreign investment in some countries?


Summarizing.

Complete the following sentences to summarize the text above:

1. There are two components in foreign …

2. Foreign direct investment involves…

3. In case of… investment stocks and bonds are purchased.

4. The main reasons for investment abroad are…

5. Economic integration of the leading countries of the world… foreign investment.

8Viewpoint:

Are there any examples of foreign direct investments in the economy of our region?


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